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Third, the hormonal regulation function tests

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By , March 6, 2012 10:01 am

endocrine system (endocrine system) is an important regulator of body systems, it is complementary with the nervous system, regulating the body’s growth and development of common metabolic and maintain a stable internal environment, and affect the control of reproductive behavior and so on.

endocrine system (endocrine system) is an important regulator of body systems, it is complementary with the nervous system, regulating the body’s growth and development of common metabolic and maintain a stable internal environment, and affect the control of reproductive behavior and so on.

endocrine system consists of endocrine glands and other organs located in endocrine cells. Some endocrine glands are the body’s glands no output catheter. Endocrine cell secretions called hormones (hormone). Most endocrine cells secrete hormones through the blood circulation of the role of specific cells in the distance, a small part of the endocrine cells of the secretions can directly act on neighboring cells, calls this paracrine (paracrine). The structure is characterized by endocrine glands: glandular cells arranged in cords, surrounded by groups like or bubble-like, non-exclusive conduit to send secretions, rich in capillaries.

endocrine cells secrete hormones, according to the nature of Pok nitrogen into hormones (including amino acid derivatives, amines, peptides and protein hormones) and two types of steroid hormones. Ammonia secretion of hormones is characterized by cell ultrastructure, cytoplasm contains synthetic hormones related with rough endoplasmic reticulum complexes and high-thou base, as well as the secretion of membrane-coated particles. Secretion of steroid hormones cell ultrastructure characterized by cytoplasm containing synthetic steroid hormone with the rich smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but not the formation of secretory granules; more mitochondria, the ridge mostly tubular; cytoplasm also There are more lipid droplets, where cholesterol and other raw materials for the synthesis of hormones.

each hormone acts on a certain organ or organs of certain types of cells, known as hormone target organ (target organ) or target cells (target cell). With the corresponding target cells with a combination of hormone receptors, hormone receptors and the corresponding combined to produce effects. Nitrogen-containing hormone receptor in the plasma membrane of target cells, and steroid hormone receptors is generally located in the cytoplasm of target cells.

many organs, though not endocrine glands. But with the endocrine function of tissues or cells, such as the brain (in Philippians peptides, gastrin-releasing factor, etc.), liver (original Su-tight vessels, bone 25 hydroxylation of steroids, etc.), kidney (renin, prostaglandins, 1,25 hydroxy steroids into bone, etc.). The same hormone can be synthesized in different tissues or organs, such as longevity endostatin (hypothalamus, pancreatic, gastrointestinal, etc.), polypeptide growth factors (nervous system, endothelial cells, platelets, etc.). Nervous system and endocrine systems in close physical divider, such as neuroendocrine hypothalamus is the central organization, can synthetic antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin, etc., along the axon stored in the posterior pituitary. Both opiate peptides acting on the nervous system (which is the nature of neurotransmitters), and act on the pituitary (which is the nature of hormones). Both in the body to maintain environmental stability and interaction and coordination, such as mechanisms to keep blood sugar stable, that endocrine hormones such as insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, somatostatin, the role of adrenal cortex hormones , but also the nervous system such as the sympathetic and parasympathetic involvement. Therefore, only in the nervous system and endocrine system are normal, in order to make the body environment to maintain optimum condition.

the main body of the glands are: thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pituitary, pineal gland, pancreatic, thymus, and gonad.

endocrine system diseases


endocrine system is composed of embryonic mesoderm and endoderm develop into the cells or cell populations (ie, endocrine glands). They secrete trace of Pok substances – hormones – through the bloodstream to target cells, with the corresponding receptors, affect the metabolic processes and play a wide range of its systemic effect. Endocrine system and the ectodermal differentiation of the nervous system compatible, maintaining body balance of the environment, in order to maintain balance and stability, between the endocrine system a complete set of mutual restraint, mutual influence and the more complex positive and negative feedback system. So that there are different conditions outside change, together with the nervous system within the environment to remain stable, which is to maintain the continuity of life and maintain the necessary conditions of race. Any kind of endocrine cell function disorders caused by excessive secretion of a hormone or lack of, can cause the corresponding pathophysiological changes.


can know from the endocrine function, endocrine disorders on the health risks are great, the body can not make normal growth, development, reproduction, not for normal metabolic activity. There are a variety of human endocrine glands, different endocrine diseases occur when the health hazards are also different.

such as islet lesions occurred, excessive secretion of insulin will cause low blood sugar, too little insulin can cause diabetes. Thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone will be hyperthyroidism, patients eat, weight loss, heat intolerance, palpitation. Produces too little thyroid hormone appeared hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism symptoms just the opposite. Pituitary gland produces too little hormone, dwarfism appeared to adult height when less than 130 cm. Such as hypopituitarism, can affect the thyroid, gonads, adrenal gland, there is not development, growth retarded, poor physical, mental difference.

Depending on the pathogenesis, including abnormal endocrine glands, hormone secretion abnormalities, abnormal conversion from the former hormone, target cell’s response to the hormone abnormalities, endocrine system diseases can be classified as follows;

a hormone deficiency disease

(a) of the endocrine gland dysfunction can be due to trauma, tumor destruction, infection, bleeding, autoimmune damage caused by the primary endocrine dysfunction, the hypothalamus or pituitary hormone deficiency, expressed as target organs (such as thyroid, adrenal cortex, gonads) and dysfunction, that is secondary to endocrine dysfunction, congenital dysfunction of endocrine glands are often obstacles to hormone synthesis, even for the synthesis of hormones structural abnormalities, the lack of biological activity, a rare example of diabetes, blood insulin levels higher than normal, but its amino acid disorder, there is no biological activity. Congenital disorders can produce some hormone synthesis, but also can be completely in nature.

(b) secondary to glandular hormone deficiency caused by external factors such as hormonal changes before the hormone obstacles to speed up the degradation of hormones, appear antagonistic substances, such as the corresponding antibodies.

(c) of the hormone response to low, in part of the endocrine gland dysfunction, blood hormone levels were normal or even high. This may be due to an anti-receptor antibodies, closed receptor, reducing the chance of hormones and receptors. Receptors may also be due to structural abnormalities or decrease in the number. For example, pseudo-hypoparathyroidism, plasma parathyroid hormone was significantly higher, but significantly lower clinical hyperparathyroidism in kidney disease may not of vasopressin sensitive hypertension, liver disease of pancreatic glucagon not sensitive.

endocrine system (endocrine system) is an important regulator of body systems, it is complementary with the nervous system, regulating the body’s growth and development of common metabolic and maintain a stable internal environment, and affect the control of reproductive behavior and so on.

Second, the hormone excess syndrome

(a) of the endocrine gland function may be too high due to various reasons gland hyperplasia or functional adenomas. This functional adenomas (including functional adenomas) are well differentiated. Gland hyperplasia on a multi-gland function due to hyperthyroidism caused by the so-called secondary hormone excess disorder.

(B) atopic tumors produce hormones as tumor cells can function independently of the secretion of hormones or hormone-like activity of compounds, causing a corresponding clinical manifestations. By a single gene (ACTH, growth hormone, prolactin, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, gastrin, erythropoietin, etc.) and two genes (such as human chorionic gonadotropin, luteinizing hormone, egg cells and promote cell factors, etc.) abnormality. Although a variety of ectodermal anomalies such tumor cells can produce biologically active substances, but mainly to have deterrence take the amine precursor and decarboxylation (APUD) cells. More common in lung oat cell carcinoma, carcinoid, thymoma and so on.

(c) iatrogenic use of hormones or their derivatives in the physiological dose treatment of diseases in excess can lead to iatrogenic hormone excess syndrome.

(d) the high sensitivity of rare target tissue, such as hyperthyroidism into some of the organization’s increased sensitivity to catecholamine receptors, and combined atrial fibrillation often have abnormalities of the heart were.

(e) a number of autoimmune diseases, autoimmune antibodies and receptors, similar to the role of hormones, the most common, such as stimulating antibodies in Graves’ disease can cause hyperthyroidism, rare insulin receptor antibodies, can appear similar to the clinical manifestations of too much insulin.

(f) secondary to systemic disease, high secretion of hormones, endocrine glands, the Department received the normal amount of physiological or pathological stimulation. For example, cirrhosis with ascites, nephrotic syndrome and congestive heart failure when aldosteronism, parathyroid hormone increase during uremia and so on.

Third, the endocrine glands syndrome

Schmidt’s syndrome, Department of 2 or more glands while the incidence of dysfunction of the disease may be related to immune disorders, may include insulin, thyroid, adrenal, parathyroid, and gonads. Because hyperplasia, adenoma, adenocarcinoma was induced hyperthyroidism is called multiple endocrine neoplasia. Generally divided into three types. MEN Ⅰ type (Wermer syndrome) including parathyroid, pancreatic, pituitary, adrenal cortex and hyperthyroidism. MEN Ⅱ type (Sipple syndrome), including pheochromocytoma (may be bilateral and extra-adrenal distribution), medullary thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid hyperplasia. MEN Ⅲ types, including medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and nerve tumors. This is a family of 3 multi-trunk, the cause of the mechanism is unknown.

four, not associated with hormonal disorders of the endocrine glands diseases

including non-functioning tumors, cancer, cysts, inflammation.

general clinical narrow endocrine diseases classified as follows:

A hypothalamic disease

(a) functional

(b) organic (tumor, inflammation, trauma, surgery, radiation caused by hypothalamic syndrome).

Second, pituitary disease

(a) of the pituitary disease

1. hyperthyroidism gigantism, acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas and other disease groups, Cushing disease, hyperthyroidism, and pituitary disorders.

2. dysfunction, pituitary dwarfism, adult pituitary hypofunction.

(b) of the pituitary tumor

(c) of the pituitary disease

1. insipidus

2. inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone excess pituitary disease

(D) vacuoles sella

Third, thyroid disease (a) of autoimmune thyroid disease

1. hyperthyroidism

2. Hypothyroidism

(b) simple goiter (including endemic goiter)

(c) thyroiditis

(d) of thyroid cancer and nodules

(E) ectopic thyroid with congenital deformity.

four parathyroid disease

(a) hyperparathyroidism

(b) hypoparathyroidism

(c) the pseudo-and pseudo-hypoparathyroidism

five, adrenal gland disease

(a) cortex disease

1, adrenal hypofunction

(1) Chronic (Addison’s disease and selective aldehyde steroid deficiency)

(2) acute (renal glands crisis)

2. hyperthyroidism adrenal cortex

(1) cortisol (Cushing syndrome)

(2) primary aldehyde steroid histiocytosis

(3) adrenogenital syndrome (congenital adrenal hyperplasia)

(4) mixed

(b) of the medulla pheochromocytoma disease

six, gastrointestinal pancreatic disease

(a) diabetes

(b) of the insulinoma (functional β-cell tumor)

(c) glucagon tumors

(d) of gastrinoma (ZoIIinger-EIIison syndrome)

(e) vasodilator intestinal peptide tumors (watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, no acid syndrome)

(six) somatostatin tumor

(g) carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome

seven ovarian disease

(a) of premenstrual stress disorder

(b) of the menopausal syndrome (menopause)

(c) Premature ovarian failure

(d) of polycystic ovary

(e) Other (amenorrhea, menstrual disorders swept into the gynecological endocrine diseases)

eight, testicular disease

(a) male hypogonadism syndrome

(b) of the male sex premature

nine, endocrine kidney disease

(a) Batter syndrome

(b) of the renin tumors

ten, non-endocrine tumors caused by different sources (bit) endocrine syndrome

XI, the principle of multiple endocrine diagnosis

complete diagnosis of endocrine disease should include the following three aspects: ① functional diagnosis; ② pathological diagnosis (localization and qualitative); ③ diagnosis. Detailed history and comprehensive physical examination often provide important clues to alert doctors to consider the diagnosis or endocrine disease should be excluded. Early diagnosis as possible, strive for the best prognosis, Ji should note the following points:

a hormone concentration determination can be used radioimmunoassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay determination of body fluids such as hormone levels, the reliability of decisions to the purity and characteristics of antibodies, the quality of collected samples, such as the determination plasma insulin concentration also includes insulin, and serum C-peptide, the undissociated also includes C-peptide, have affected the reliability of measurement results. Only the use of monoclonal antibody detection methods in order to improve the ability to distinguish. There is also a distinction to be free in body fluids (mostly with biological activity) and the combination of hormones (mostly non-biologically active) hormones, in order to determine the correct evaluation of the results.

endocrine system (endocrine system) is an important regulator of body systems, it is complementary with the nervous system, regulating the body’s growth and development of common metabolic and maintain a stable internal environment, and affect the control of reproductive behavior and so on.

Second, the dynamic observation of hormones Determination of the normal rhythm of hormones such as ACTH, cortisol diurnal fluctuations, luteinizing hormone and promote egg cell rhythm and so on. The disappearance of the normal rhythm of mostly early manifestation of abnormal gland function.

Third, the hormonal regulation function tests , including stimulation test (check the response of trophic hormones) and inhibition test (check the feedback suppression), the identification of physiological changes and pathological changes, a clear pathological changes nature have a greater significance.

four receptor determination on a variety of target cell receptors in the determination of the quantity and quality, such as red blood cell insulin receptor determination, determination of blood and other nuclear T3 receptors. Water is mainly used for hormone disorder is inconsistent with the clinical manifestations of patients, changes in rhythm receptors have important clinical significance.

five target cell function tests only target cells in the clinical response can only reflect the endocrine dysfunction, so the function of target cells can be measured objectively evaluate the effects of hormones. For example, hyperthyroidism, platelet potassium – sodium ATP activity was significantly increased, isovolumic systolic myocardial shortening, such as elevated basal metabolic rate.

six positioning check Video Pok mainly examined to determine the endocrine tumors, and early detection of cancer, distant metastasis.

seven pathological examination to determine the nature of disease, such as the thyroid needle biopsy in determining Hashimoto’s disease, thyroid cancer, there is a certain value.

treatment principles

First, hormone deficiencies should supplement the corresponding physiological dose steroid hormones in the supplementary difficulty or in the supplementary hormones take other measures to maintain a stable internal environment, such as parathyroid dysfunction can be used to add calcium and vitamin C treatment. Adrenal insufficiency can be used as an adjuvant therapy of high-sodium diet.

Second, the hormone but not too much should be as radical in each case can be done. Methods: ① tumor resection led to hyperactivity or hyperplasia. ② drugs inhibit the synthesis and release of hormones, drugs such as thiourea treatment of hyperthyroidism, Bromocriptine treatment of prolactinomas and galactorrhea stopped and acromegaly, Cushing’s game G of treatment disease. ③ The feedback inhibition of the target gland hormone synthesis and secretion of hormones to promote, such as thyroid hormone suppression of thyroid stimulating hormone, cortisol inhibition of adrenocorticotropic hormone, estrogen or androgen inhibition of gonadotropin and so on. ④ Pok treatment of patients with inoperable, such as the double-chlorophenyl nitrous oxide (O, P-DDO) treatment of adrenal cortical carcinoma, adriamycin treatment of urine with chain β-cell carcinoma. ⑤ or correct use of certain hormones that regulate metabolism, such as testosterone and other anabolic hormones in the treatment of Cushing’s leap of negative oxygen balance. ⑥ Radiation therapy inhibit its secretion.

Third, the cause of treatment such as exophthalmos can be treated with immune control agent, due to adrenal tuberculosis, chronic adrenal insufficiency should be given anti-TB treatment. Endocrine Pok progress

in the thyroid, the initial understanding of the diffuse goiter with hyperthyroidism (Greaves disease), chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease), etc. are a disease – autoimmune thyroid disease. Both can co-exist, you can change each other. Thyroid dysfunction and disease in a transient disease are different from normal thyroid function during the performance. In the diagnosis of rat thyroid cell line to determine antibody titers, and a variety of changes in the course of warming, the diagnosis, mitigation of, withdrawal indications and the estimated chance of a relapse are very helpful.

in diabetes, the main mechanism in the occurrence of complications and prevention methods for a lot more in-depth study that glycation, polyol-pass metabolism in the relative increase in thromboxane, prostaglandins and other abnormal changes to occur the main complications. These factors also initially identified due to the chronic long-term diabetes complications is to determine the prognosis of older key. Now put forward a number of treatment options, such as continuous subcutaneous insulin type of insulin pump therapy, continuous use of artificial islets, large doses of dipyridamole, a captopril, etc., are all promising signs, but should be further observe the effect.

in the endocrine glands, tissue or cell transplantation over the past decade a lot of useful scientific curb exploration, such as micro-capsule method, closed law islet transplantation antigens or β-cell transplantation, were obtained in experimental animals a success. It was also transplanted into the immune response of the weak parts such as the ventricles, arachnoid cavity, also confirmed that there is hope, it was also exploring other glands transplanted, but still far from practical.

endocrine system diseases has made great progress, but there are still many issues to be resolved, first and foremost the issue of prevention, a high incidence of diabetes, but with the increasing improvement of life, but no effective before control measures. Also in the treatment of urgent need to address many issues, the lack of cure most endocrine diseases such as diabetes and now takes the approach can not effectively prevent the occurrence of chronic complications, chronic complications that have occurred in the lack of reversal means more , can not be better to extend the patient’s disease-free survival time. Many basic research results. A variety of active peptides, such as physical and reason of the lack of depth of meaning, let alone clinical applications.

With the general increase in living standards, to curb the high incidence of disease diagnosis and treatment of men have become increasingly demanding, but large areas in the country, including many major cities are still gaps, and now the domestic male Pok disorders incidence is still a lack of understanding, which are urgently needed to study a large number of medical personnel.

Three, What are the symptoms of genital warts?

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By , March 5, 2012 3:52 pm

got genital warts how to do ?



One had genital warts how to do?

Beijing male senior experts emphasized that patients diagnosed with genital warts, be sure to early treatment, select the section Pok regular therapy to avoid inappropriate treatment and stimulus to accelerate malignant transformation. Using Ira – photodynamic therapy, is the best current international clinical treatment of genital warts treatment technology, has brought a new ideal patient treatment, high cure rate, recurrence rate, non-invasive, painless Ku, no scar.

Treatment principle: Topical application of photosensitizer, light after light Zhao fire-power, fast dynamic response of the excitation light, in target tissues produce large amounts of singlet oxygen while releasing fluorescence, singlet oxygen cytotoxicity to target cells leading to necrosis or apoptosis, or affect cell function wart to irreversible damage, lesions eventually died off, and kill and remove hidden lesions and restore normal form and function; and neighboring normal tissue is not affected.

Are essentially different from traditional therapy, Ira – photodynamic therapy safe painless, no scars, no resistance, does not damage normal tissue, genital warts removal rate, a significant anti-relapse. Can be used for a variety of patients with genital warts, especially other treatments ineffective, recurrent, long treatment of patients with genital warts.

Two, which causes genital warts?

Beijing male veteran said: genital warts caused by HPV benign neoplasm of the skin and mucous membranes, mainly through sexual contact, a small number of indirect contact, is China’s current common sexually transmitted diseases , representing the third of sexually transmitted diseases, and genital cancer is closely related. Main cause of infection:

1) dirty 伕 wife life. Dirty 伕 wife life is the main reason for genital warts infection. Male genital warts Ji almost caused by sexual contact. Patients with genital warts is the main source of infection and rapid spread of infection is high, usually about 3 weeks after infection onset.

2) their low immunity. Mainly refers to non-sexual contact, contact with the secretions of patients with genital warts or contaminated items such as towels contaminated with secretions, foot tub cloth, clothing, and even toilet toilet seat, etc., can be transmitted.

3) trauma, infection. HPV warts on the skin or mucous membranes via a small rupture of the wound penetrated the body, after several days incubation, the bacteria multiply to sufficient numbers began to disease. Therefore, to break the wound treated with caution.

Three, What are the symptoms of genital warts?

Genital warts, also known as Gui pointed condyloma, human papilloma virus pathogen systems (HPV). The virus is a DNA virus, is highly host and tissue specificity, only violations of human skin and mucous membranes, non-infringement of animals. More from the unclean sexual transmission, is a common sexually transmitted diseases. Most of the outer genital warts mucosa, but also the growth in the anus around the door edge.

Typical symptoms: early disease is pink or red dirt the size of millet-like vegetation, shape, such as pimples-like, papillary, cauliflower, chicken coronavirus, nature delicate, slightly pointed top, painless itching, grew or increased. Vegetation or with a slightly wider base, the surface of particles, surface wet or bleeding, often concentrated in pus between the particles, distribution of rancid odor, scratching may be secondary to purulent. At low humidity drying parts of the genital warts, damage was very small and flat wart-like. Located in the usually hot and humid and humid parts of the filiform warts or papilloma, easy integration into large clumps.

Predilection sites: men occur in the coronary sulcus, glans, foreskin, frenulum, urethra, a few found the body of the penis, gay in the anus can occur weeks and rectum. But rarely seen in the scrotum. In particular, prone to chronic gonorrhea, the foreskin is too long. In addition to these parts, the other parts of the body can be sick, such as oral, axillary, umbilical fossa, between the toes and so on. Also from other parts of the body’s own vaccination to the genital area, but rarely see.

Four, genital warts incubation period is?

Warts incubation period, usually three weeks – 8 months.

Beijing male senior experts, people from HPV infection to genital warts damage to skin and mucous membranes after some time the need arises, will this time that genital warts incubation period. According to the survey warts incubation period of 3 weeks to 8 months. Most reports of clinical observation, genital warts incubation period is generally about three months, the shortest incubation period of 3-4 weeks, the longest incubation period of 8-12 months.

Beijing male veteran said: According to the research showed that genital warts incubation period in the difference between men and women, such as women shorter than the incubation period, growth in men than women latency. Men and women was also observed in patients with genital warts incubation period and clearly related to the local environment, such as local health is poor, wet, secretions more than those warts incubation period is short, slightly longer incubation period and vice versa.

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